About mahatma gandhi biography



About mahatma gandhi biography, mahatma gandhi



                      THE ESSENCE OF HINDUISM 

          
About Mahatma Gandhi biography Gandhiji then referred to a question that was sent by a member of the audience; What is Hindu What is the origin of the word Is there any Hinduism.  There were pertinent questions for the time. He was no historian .about mahatma Gandhi biography he laid claim to no leaning, but he had read in the same authentic book on Hinduism that the word Hindu did not occur in the Vedas but when alexander the great invaded India the inhabitants of the country to the east of the Sindhu. which is known by the English speaking Indians as the Indus were described as Hindus. the letter”s   had become in greek. the religion of these inhabitants became Hinduism and as they knew it, it was a most tolerant religion. it gave shelter to the early Christians who had fled from persecution also to the jews known as beni Israelis also to the Parsis. he was proud to belong to that Hinduism which was all-inclusive and which stood for tolerance. Aryan scholars swore by what then called Vedic religion and Hinduism was otherwise known as Arya Varta he had no such aspiration. Hindustan of his conception was all sufficing for him it certainly included the Vedas but it also included much more. he could detect no inconsistency in declaring that he could without in any way whatsoever impairing the dignity of Hinduism pay equal homage to the best of Islam. Christianity   Zoroastrianism and Judaism. sach Hinduism will live as long as the sun shines. Tulsidas has summed it up in one Doha, The root of religion is embedded in mercy, wheres as egotism is rooted in the love body. Tulasi says that mercy should never be abandoned ever though the body perishes

CHILDHOOD

About mahatma Gandhi biography Mahatam Gandhi’s full name Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Mohandas Gandhi was born on October 2nd, 1869. His parents were Karamchand Gandhi & puttlibai. His from Porbandar Gujrat India. He was small and Dark and looked no different millions of other children born in India. He was the youngest Of your children in his family. Gandhi was a member of the Hindu religion which meant he wasn’t allowed to eat meat or drink wine. 


EARLY LIFE

His father (Karamchand) was the senior official (dewan or prime minister) of a small Indian state (Porbandar) before moving on to be the chief karbhari (adviser) in the principality of Rajkot. He looked to his son to follow in his footsteps. Gandhi went to school did not particularly excel at anything but learned the things that were expected of him. He married in 1882, aged 13. His wife, Kasturba kanji who was also 13, was the daughter of a local merchant and was chosen for him. At the end of his formal schooling, he decided that he wanted to be a lawyer. To do this he had to come to England to enroll at the inner temple. He was called to the bar in the summer of 1891 on his return to India, he found that he could not make a successful career as a lawyer so he moved south Africa in 1893.


EDUCATION

About mahatma Gandhi biography In November 1887, 18-year-old Gandhi graduated from high school in Ahmedabad. In January 1888, he enrolled at samples college in Bhavnagar State, then he the sole degree-granting institution of higher education in the region. But he dropped out and returned to his family in Porbandar.


GANDHI IN SOUTH AFRICA

South Africa was the crucible that forged Gandhi”s  identity as a political activist and was an important prelude to his return to India, where he played a pivotal role in securing its independence from British rule August 1947.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi arrived in South Africa in 1893 at the relatively tender age of 24 as a newly qualified lawyer on a temporary. Assignment to act on behalf of a local Indian trader in a commercial dispute. What was meant to be a short stopgap for the struggling young lawyer turned into a 21-year stay, with spells in India and England? By the time Gandhi left South Africa for the last time in 1914, he had already earned the appellation mahatma (or great souls ) for his work in securing significant legal concessions for the local Indian population in Africa.






 GANDHI AND INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS

About mahatma Gandhi biography The thirties were a particularly important and significant decade in the development of the Indian national congress and Gandhi”s role became central towards determining the course of action in these years. The civil disobedience movement was strong enough to lead the British authorities to cower down under pressure and ta ake step to initiate the first round table conference leading to the Gandhi Irwin pact. Gandhiji on the terms laid down by the pact reached England in 1931 as a sole representative or the Indian national congress to participate in the second round table conference, where he delivered an invigorating speech the brutalities of the British rule in India. The conference predictably failed the British government thereafter indulged in a divide and rule policy with the introduction of the communal award rule. Gandhi’s innate belief in secularism was terribly hurt and led congress towards a full-fledged revolution. Gandhiji’s particular cause of the pain was the breakdown within the Hindu community on lines of caste and creed, which was absolutely antagonistic to his satyagraha ideals. The highlight oof the movement was the fast until death that he undertook on 20th September 1932. His condition deteriorated and soon the warring factions were forced to come to terms of commonality. There would be a common election for the Hindus with the Harijans and the other backward categories having seats reserved for them. The meeting with Ambedkar was successful, a great cessation was avoided at Gandhi's own initiative and the British policy of divide and rule suffered a setback the election proved a great success for Gandhi and the Indian national congress that worked under his leadership

KHEDASATYAGRAHAN 

The kheda satyagraha of 1918, in the kheda district of Gujarat, India during the period of the British raj was a satyagraha movement organized by Mohandas Gandhi. Was a major revolt in the Indian independence movement. It was the third satyagraha movement after Champaran satyagraha and Ahmedabad mill strike. Gandhi organised this movement to support peasathe nts of the kheda district. People of kheda were unable to pay the high taxes levied by the British due to crop failure and a plague epidemic.

The government finally sought to foster an honorable agreement for both parties. The tax for the year in question, and the next world be suspended, and the increase in rate reduced, while all confiscated property would be returned. People also worked in cohesion to return the confiscated lands to their rightful owners. The ones who had bought the lands seized were influenced to return them, even thought the british had officially said it would stand by the buyers.


KHILAFAT MOVEMENT WORLD WAR 1

The khilafat movement (1919-1924) was an agitation by Indian Muslims allied with Indian nationalism in the years following world war 1. Its purpose was to pressure the British government to preserve the authority of the Ottoman sultan as a caliph of Islam following the breakup of the ottoman empire at the end of the war. A campaign in defense of the caliphate was launched, led in India by the brothers Shaukat and Muhammad Ali and by Abul Kalam Azad. Leaders joined forces with Mahatma Gandhi's non-cooperation movement for Indian freedom, promising nonviolence in return for his support of the khilafat movement. 

Gandhiji took the leadership On November 23, 1919, the all India khilafat conference was organized at New Delhi and later a khilafat manifesto was published which called upon the British to protect the caliphate. The leaders of the khilafat movement joined hands with Indian national congress for the upcoming non-cooperation movement 

Mohammad Ali and his brother Maulana Shaukat Ali joined with other Muslim leaders such as pir Ghulam mujaddid sarhandi sheik Shaukat Ali Siddiqi, dr. mukhtar Ahmed Ansari raees-Ul-Muhammad June, hasrat Mohan, Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari, maulana Abul kalam, and dr. hakim Ajmal khan they are leaders of khilafat movement. 

Gandhiji launched the khilafat and the non-cooperation movement in 1920. The non-cooperation movement came to an end in 1922 when a mob of people burnt a police station killing 22 policemen. The khilafat movement continued as Muslims were against the British government for fighting against Turkey in the first world war. 


 NON-COOPERATION MOVEMENT

The non-cooperation movement was a significant but short phase of the Indian independence movement from British rule. It was led by Mahatma Gandhi after the jallianwala bagh massacre and lasted from 1920 to February 1922. It aimed to resist british rule in India through non-violent means or “things” protesters would refuse to buy British goods, adopt the use of local handicrafts and picket liquor shop. The ideas of Ahinsa and non-violence, and Gandhi`s ability to rally hundreds of thousands of common citizens towards the cause of indian independence, were fist seen on large scale in this movement through the summer of 1920. Gandhi feared that the movement might lead to popular violence. The non-cooperation movement was launched on 1 August 1920 and withdrawn in February 1922 after the chauri chaura incident.


SWARAJ 

The concept of swaraj or self-rule was developed during the Indian freedom struggle.in his book Hindi swaraj (1909), Gandhiji sought to clarify that the meaning behind swaraj much more than simply “wanted English rule without the Englishman; the tiger`s  nature but not the tiger.” The crux of his British political, economic, bureaucratic, legal, military, and educational institutions were inherently unjust, exploitative and alienating. As pinto explicates, “the principal theme of hind swaraj is the moral inadequacy of western civilization, especially its industrialism, as the model for free India. “Gandhiji was particularly critical of the deeply embedded principles of might is right and particularly critical of the deeply embedded principles of might id right and survival of the fittest.
On another level, the call for swaraj represents a genuine attempt to regain control of the -self-responsibility, and capacities for self-realization – from institutions of dehumanization. As Gandhiji states, “it Is swaraj  when we learn to rule ourselves.” The real goal of the freedom struggle was not only to secure political Azadi (independence) from Britain but rather to gain true swaraj ( liberation & self-rile).
Gandhiji wanted all those who believed in swaraj:-
    {1}:-To reject and wholly uproot the British raj (rule) from within themselves and their           communities;
    {2}:- To regenerate new reference pointed, systems, and structures that enable individual and collective self-development. 


SALT MARCH (DANDI MARCH)
 
The salt march, also known as the salt satyagraha, dandi march, and the dandi satyagahra was an act of nonviolent civil disobedience in colonial Indian led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. The 24-day march lasted from 12 March 1930 to 6 April 1930 as a direct action campaign of tax resistance and nonviolent protest against the British salt monopoly. Mahatma Gandhi started this marc whit 80 of his trusted volunteers.

[1]> Walking ten miles a day of 24 days, the march spanned over 240 miles. From Sabarmati ashram, 240 miles (384 km ) to dandi, which was called Navsari at the time (now in the state of Gujarat ). Growing numbers of Indians joined them along the way. When Gandhiji broke the laws at 6:30 AM on 6 April 1930, it sparked large acts of civil disobedience against the British Raj salt laws by millions of Indians.

 [2]> After making salt by evaporation at Dandi,  Gandhi continued southward along the coast, making salt and addressing meetings on the way. The congress party planned to stage A satyagraha at the dharasana salt works, 25 miles south of dandi. However, Gandhiji was arrested on the midnight of 4-5 May 1930, just days before the planned action at dharasana. The Dandi March and the ensuing Dharasana satyagraha drew worldwide attention to the Indian independence movement through extensive newspaper and coverage. The satyagraha against the salt tax continued for almost a year, ending with Gandhiji`s release from jail and negotiation with Viceroy Lord Irwin at the second round table conference.

[3]> over 60,000 Indians were jailed as a result satyagraha.

[4]> However, it failed to result in major concessions from birth.

[5]> the salt satyagraha campaign was based upon Gandhiji`s principles of non-violent protest called 
satyagraha, which he loosely translated as “truth-force”.

[6]> literally, it is formed the Sanskrit words Satya, “truth”, and agrapha, “insistence”. In early 1930 the Indian national congress chose satyagraha as their main tactic for winning Indian sovereignty and self-rule from British rule and appointed Gandhi to organize the campaign. Gandhiji chose the 1882 British salt act the frit target of satyagraha. The salt marches to Dandi, and the beating by British police of hundreds of nonviolent protesters in Dharasana, which received worldwide news coverage, coverage demonstrated the effective use of civil disobedience as a technique for fighting social and political injustice.

[8]> the march was the most significant organized the challenge to authority since the non-cooperation movement of 1920-22 and directly followed the purna swaraj declaration of sovereignty and self-rule by the Indian national congress ob 26 Jan 1930.

[9]> It gained worldwide attention which gave impetus to the Indian independence and started the 
nationwide civil disobedience movement….

  
 QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT 

The Quit India movement (Bharat chhodo Andolan or August movement ) was a civil disobedience movement in India launched in August 1942, in response to Mahatma Gandhi’s call for immediate independence of India. Its aim was to bring the British government to the negotiating table through determined, but passive resistance. Unilaterally and without consultation, the British had entered India into world war 2, arousing the indignation of large numbers of Indian people. On July 14-1942, the Indian national congress passed a resolution demanding complete independence from Britain and massive civil disobedience. On August 8-1942, the Quit India resolution was passed at the Bombay session of the All India congress committee (AICC). In a speech entitled, “Do or Die,” given on August 8-1942, Gandhiji urged the masses to act as an independent nation and not to follow the orders of the British. His call found support among a large number of Indians, including revolutionaries who were not necessarily a party to Gandhiji's philosophy of non-violence.
  
  
PARTITION OF INDIA & PAKISTAN

At the conclusion of the second world war, the labor party, under minister Clement Richard Attlee came to power in Britain. The labor party was largely sympathetic towards Indian people for freedom. A cabinet mission was sent to India in March 1946, which after a careful study of the Indian political scenario, proposed the formation of interim Government and convening of a constituent assembly comprising members elected by the provincial legislatures and nominees of the Indian states. An interim government was formed headed by Jawaharlal Nehru. However, the Muslim league refused to participate in the deliberation of the constituent assembly and pressed for the separated state for Pakistan. Lord Mountbatten, the viceroy of India, presented a plan for the division of India into India and Pakistan and the Indian leaders had no choice but to accept the division, the Muslim league was adamant.  
Thus, India became free at the stroke of midnight, on August 14- 1947. (since then, every year India celebrated its independence day on 15th August) Jawaharlal Nehru became the first prime of free India and continued his term till 1964. Giving voice to the sentiments of the nation, prime minister, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru said:--LONG YEARS AGO WE MADE A TRUST WITH DESTINY, AND NOW THE TIME COMES WHEN WE WILL REDEEM OUR PLEDGE, NOT WHOLLY OR IN FULL MEASURE, BUT VERY SUBSTANTIALLY. AT THE STROKE OF THE MIDNIGHT HOUR, WHEN THE WORLD SLEEPS, INDIA WILL AWAKE TO LIFE AND FREEDOM. A MOMENT COMES, WHICH VOMES BUT RARELY IN HISTORY, WHEN WE STEP OUT FROM THE OLD TO THE NEW WHEN AN AGE ENDS AND WHEN THE SOUL OF ANATION, LONG SUPPRESSED, FINDS UTTERANCE….WE END TODAY A PERIOD OF ILL FORTUNE AND DISCOVERS HERSELF AGAIN.

Earlier, a Constituent Assembly was formed in July 1946, to frame the constitution of India and Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected its president. The constitution of India was adopted by the assembly on 26th November 1949. On January 26-1950, the constitution came into force and Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected the first president of India.

      
ASSASSINATION OF GANDHI

Natural goddess. Nathuram Vinayak goddess (19 may 1910-15 November 1949) a right-wing advocate of Hindu nationalionalism who assassinated Mahatma Gandhi in New Delhi on 30 January 1948. He shot Gandhi in the c hest three times at the point-blank range. Ok. It's slightly long, but bear whit me. In the days before his death, Gandhi was constantly chanting the name of Rama. In fact, he even wrote something like “if I were to be shot in the chest and died whit the words hey ram on my lips, only then would I be a true mahatma shortly before hid death. After Gandhi's assassination shocked the world over 71 years ago. His death came then a year after India gained its independence. His death came less than a year after India gained its independence. Mohandas Gandhi was on his way ton his daily prayer meeting in New Delhi when an assassin shot him. When he died his 78-year-old. 
Final Words 

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